What are we supposed to make of Brexit? Can we even judge something that hasn’t happened yet? Shouldn’t we wait until the UK has actually “Brexited” before we start asking whether it has been a success (and what could have been done differently)?

The problem is that Brexit has no obvious end. It’s becoming clear that Brexit is a process and not an event. There may be an enormous public appetite, both in Britain and on the continent, to get Brexit over and done with, to finally have a cathartic “Brexit day” that marks a clean break between the UK’s old relationship with Europe and the new. Yet even a so-called “no deal” Brexit won’t be the end of it.

Now that the genie is out of the bottle, there is no way to put it back. The issue is so divisive that even a second referendum is unlikely to settle the matter. So, we can’t wait until Brexit is “done” to start evaluating it. We need to be thinking about Brexit now, what it means, and whether it is working.

What do our readers think? We had a comment sent in from Nando, arguing that if the European Union ignores the “lesson of Brexit” then we will inevitably see referendums on EU membership take place in other countries. However, we also had a comment sent in from Yasmine suggesting that the “lesson” from Brexit has been that voting against EU membership is a disaster, because the process has been so humiliating for the UK.

So, what are the lessons we can draw from Brexit? To get a response, we spoke to Julie Smith, a British Liberal Democrat peer and Director of the European Centre in the Department of Politics and International Studies at Cambridge University. What would she say?

One of the problems facing pro-Europeans in the UK, and I suspect in a lot of the other 27 as well, is complacency; there is a sense that membership of the European Union is the norm, that right-minded, ‘small l’ liberals will think that membership of the European Union is inevitably a good thing, and we don’t need either to talk about it or justify it.

By contrast, those who are opposed to European integration or want it to change in a much more nation-state direction have been willing to debate it for years. And we’ve seen political parties and the media, particularly in the UK but also elsewhere, trying to chip away at that pro-European norm. So there needs to be, I think, a move away from complacency and a willingness to explain what the European Union is about, how it works, and why it matters for citizens. Because it’s become seen as too technocratic, and that is, in many ways, because national political leaders have been unwilling to explain the benefits of integration so they’ve rubbished the EU if policies are unpopular, and may have claimed for themselves the credit for successful policies. What we need is a bit more openness and transparency from national leaders being willing to explain a little bit more about Europe and how member-states and the European institutions are interconnected. It isn’t ‘us’ versus ‘them’, and that needs to be made much clearer to ordinary citizens. So, less complacency, more transparency.

To get another perspective, we put the same question to Erik Jones, Professor of European Studies and International Political Economy and Director of European and Eurasian Studies at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). How would he respond?

Well, the European Union is already learning a huge number of lessons from Brexit, particularly about the relationship between direct democracy and representative democracy; we keep having these referendums on Europe, and in not all ways are these referendums ending up the way people who called them expect them to end up. The British situation is particularly dramatic, but we’ve seen similar situations in Ireland, in Denmark, in the Netherlands, and in France. And I think there’s a real question now about what is the role of this kind of direct democracy in the process of European integration, and how should that role be balanced relative to representative democracy, where our elected officials make decisions that they then have to take accountability for?

So, I think that’s probably the most important lesson. There are others are well. I think the most difficult lesson that everyone’s learned is how much the European Union really remains a peace project, as opposed to just an economic project. I think that’s definitely worth underscoring.

What lessons can the EU learn from Brexit? Are pro-Europeans too complacent about the benefits of European integration? Are there lessons about the balance between direct democracy and representative democracy? Was Brexit a warning not to take the electorate for granted? Let us know your thoughts and comments in the form below and we’ll take them to policymakers and experts for their reactions!

IMAGE CREDITS: (cc) WikiMedia – ChiralJon; PORTRAIT CREDITS: Smith (c) House of Lords, Jones (c) John Hopkins University


35 comments Post a commentcomment

What do YOU think?

  1. avatar
    Pedro

    Lesson is never let governments blame the EU for all things that go wrong and keep to themselves the merits of all things people like.

  2. avatar
    Enric

    The main reason for Brexit was the uncontroled arrivel of inmigrants. So the EU should take note.

    • avatar
      Pedro

      It was not uncontroled and not uncontrolable. That was just xebophobia.

    • avatar
      Enric

      If you say so.

  3. avatar
    Mladen

    Europe should learn not any more to trust to islanders,especially from the Albion.

  4. avatar
    EU Reform- Proactive

    I’ll like the response by Julie Smith- the British LibDem peer and Director of the European Centre:

    ……………………….“It isn’t ‘us’ versus ‘them”- but “less complacency (by voters), more transparency (by the political rulers)”! So said- it should- but is it?!

    It started in 1919 & has no end in sight:

    One of several WWI’s consequences was to abolish, ban & strip the European nobility (by legal means using the “1919 Adelsaufhebungsgesetz” = “the nobility abolishment law”) of name, power and assets in the lands/regions of the defeated Austro Hungarian Monarchy.

    Quote: “There is nothing noble in being superior to your fellow men. True nobility lies in being superior to your former self.”

    Such “robust” belief ended the ~700 year long Roman Catholic Habsburgs feudal rule- which was passed on by blood, inheritance & marriage.

    Declaring and starting a war entrenched in feudalism and chivalric motives were & are plain aristocratic arrogance and “spiritual” madness (decadence) by the past nobility.

    While being responsible for the massive misery caused in starting and losing WWI and the hope by signing “The Treaty of Versailles”- to end “the war of all wars- (through a “treaty”- rings a bell?) turned out later to be the greatest fallacy.

    The nobility’s “spiritual power” (Pan Europeanism= old “empire resurrected”) was however never abolished until this day! It was reborn by founding the Paneuropa-Union in 1922 by Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi- the forerunner of today’s EU concept and alive & well today in many countries!

    Until some EU and/or other true “European” politicians will muster enough courage to explain and than distance themselves from this 1922 “racist” philosophy (“Der Adel” etc) of Kalergi & Co- (which forms the basis of the “EU concept”)- will the question of “What lesson can the EU learn from Brexit”- remain unanswered and any attempt by pro EU supporters to do so, ring hollow!

    “They”- (“It isn’t ‘us’ versus ‘them”?)- can/will never learn- because their policy is anchored in a belief of inherited nobility, aristocracy and the superiority of their spirit over others.

    • avatar
      catherine benning

      @ EU Reform- Proactive

      As I see it, we are in the eye of a hurricane, similar to the equivalent of being under the thumb of what was named, the Pol Pit regime. A total dismantling of our society and its culture. A rejection of European, including in the British isles, any scientific, cultural, social, medical, religious or artistic norms. And it is being changed as swiftly as can be mustered, prior to our being set free with Brexit. Even at the prospect of unrest throughout our countries across the areas deemed to be in this cage for peaceful means. France is only the beginning with their “gilets jaunes”. Which is really ordinary people telling their leader they are not happy with the explosion taking place in their lives and their children’s lives on a daily basis. And that they do not want to pay for it.

      Brexit is an awakening of what is going on behind closed doors in our so called democracies. The UK parliament is filled with MP’s opposed to the will of the majority of our countries voters. Their claim is, we voted for separation from the EU without knowing what is was we were voting for. No mention,of course that if this was so, they are the culprits of misinformation on the benefits we have of being in this European club. The details of which are kept as quiet as a secret grannies street life. We are not supposed to know. And the internet being of free sources, is deemed a threat with swathes of historic truths being wiped from view by the millions on a daily basis. So we cannot refer back to the reality we once knew was our lifestyle.

      And when you look at the voices and faces of the people in this House of representatives, called the House of Commons and Lords, all you find are gurning half wits, dressed like fat street tarts, without a morsel of intellect, sounding off as if filled with recorded lines popping off in their head. They cannot answer a question or logically explain, even in outline, exactly what it is we are getting for this loss of control of our political ethos or changes being pushed down our throats. Look at the Irish, completely in the dark with nothing but constant broken record mantras pushed their way. And how many of you dare to write or speak what you really feel is taking place in your life. How many of you are afraid to be honest. As we in the UK are. We speak amongst ourselves but know if we say out loud what we don’t go along with, we will be under threat of some kind.

      The lessons the EU must take into their minds are, first, why are they doing this to their fellow man? What is the objective? Have they thought it through in concept, or, is it something they simply assume as given to accept, without logical vision or question? Are they afraid to really speak their mind? Are they happy with what they see taking place under their watch? And if so, why do they feel it is their hope for the future of their family and communities? Have they researched the new vision and where it is leading, or is it simply, this is what we have been told?

      Here is a Labour MP in the UK, a staunch feminist and Remainer, elected by a constituency voting heavily to Leave the EU. Take note of what she says about those who elected her for this seat. A safe seat by the way. She is a heavy Remain in the EU person yet put herself up for this seat by not telling the truth to her constituents. And she starts out with how terrible the life for her voters are, doesn’t state that this ‘nasty life’ is set for with them by being in the EU for almost fifty years. Set record over and over without thought of the faulty concept.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sxh1cf47IZE

    • avatar
      EU Reform- Proactive

      Hi Catherine,

      “Pol Pit”?- you probably were thinking the EU is the “pits” of a concept- while you meant “Pol Pot”- the notorious Marxist Leninist killer of ~2mio of his people?

      Let’s rather recall some statements by Mr. JCJuncker in 2017 about “ill-inspired Commissioners” to regulate the “flushing of toilets” (=EU fun) in the EU and his forecast about “EU multiple speeds”.

      Is anybody aware of any further progress on that matter? I am not.

      quote:…….“some governments want to deepen shared sovereignty”- who are these governments? Dare and tell us please!

      https://www.euractiv.com/section/future-eu/news/juncker-this-commission-no-longer-regulates-the-flushing-of-toilets/

      If Germany & France are meant by “some”- than please- “some others” need to challenge and cheer this 2 nations and the EU on to GO AHEAD & show the world the political magic how to make one unitary state out of France & Germany- without causing riots!

      Or is it all just political bluff and no action? Come on EU, Germany & France- set an example! What are you waiting for? Do it!

      Much is written about the UK parliament not knowing what it wants. True, but one can equally question that- “Article 50= 1st step- was enough to get the U.K. out the door as the indisputably crucial first step”- negotiate the “deal” as a non member afterwards.

      Once more: Why was that not adhered to?

      What is the difference between the “WA & the DEAL”? Somebody took someone for a hellish ride here?

      Experts on EU law say an agreement on the future relationship between the U.K. and the EU can only be brokered under Article 218, once Britain returns to third country status. Clearly meaning first OUT- the rest afterwards!

      https://www.politico.eu/article/forget-article-50-heres-article-218/

      Greenland was the first country to leave the EEC in a 1982 referendum. To leave the EU today is much more difficult- one day it will be impossible. The outcome was similar as the UK’s: 48% remain – 52% leave- which it did after a 2 year period of negotiation.

      https://www.politico.eu/article/greenland-exit-warning-to-britain-brexit-eu-referendum-europe-vote-news-denmark/

      Any lasting & serious concept- like the EU- has to be founded on unshakable ethical & moral principles to survive. And not on 100 year old racial prejudice by the invisible nobility and outdated aristocratic wish lists- taken on board by the EU and sold as the greatest innovation of this century!

  5. avatar
    Karla Flay

    I totally agree withJulie Smith’s points about complacency and understanding of the workings if the EU and Britain’s relationship within it!!I have long belirvrd that British government if all political complexions have failed to explains the benefits of EU membership and the substantial role Britain had played in shaping policy and legislation!! Governments and media have been quick to blame the EU for any unpopular measures, justifiably or not! Newspapers have also told outright lies about EU policies!!

    Many British people have be et considered themselves to be ‘real’ Europeans and have little concept of what modern EU citizenship entails or offers! There is far too much emphasis on the Second World War (I blame Hollywood here!) and too little on the history and events of the past 74 years!!!! National stereotypes continue to flourish!!

    Another factor is that Leave voters seemed to blame everything they dislike about modern Britain or indeed modern life on the EU!! Many are now realising that this blame was misplaced!!

  6. avatar
    Sebastian

    Don t put on ropes a Nation
    The arrogance the stupidity of the EU it s been HUGE

  7. avatar
    Victor

    That the ue can disappear if it doesn’t start working on improving the quality of life for Europeans.

  8. avatar
    Olivier

    1. Don t ask countries which do not feel European to join EU
    2 stop enlarging EU to countries which do not want to develop common policies
    3 mind about interest of European peoples control the borders and protect them from unfair competition

  9. avatar
    Paul

    It didn’t learn lesson from the financial crash in 2008/09 and resultant destitution of whole generations across med countries….nor from the migrant crisis of 2015/6 which led to the rise of populism across the EU and the erection of razor wire barriers between States…..so don’t hold your breath waiting for the EU to learn anything from brexit.

  10. avatar
    Любомир

    The EP and EC should learn to respect more the sovereignty of each membering nation. The EU at its core is a union of nation-states and even though the EU treaty allows the EP to override national sovereignty, this doesn’t mean it should abuse this possibility.

  11. avatar
    Marc

    Does the EU have it’s own interest at heart, or Europe’s?

  12. avatar
    Nikos

    Germany start the 1 first and the 2second war, now they are for one More time EU…. British soon without EU they Will be Great again!! I like EU but without Germany!!!

  13. avatar
    Dimitri

    To dismantle a great Organization like European Union, which was built on great vision, is a huge mistake.
    A deap investigation of the actual reason in needed!

  14. avatar
    Mimi

    Work to make the life of EU cityzens better , stop fabricating laws that make no sense , instade of forcing migrants on us , encourage young families to have more babys by creating a suport sistem for them.

  15. avatar
    Enric

    The EU is a nest of good for nothing people seating in Brussels. If not, why May goes to talk with Merkel and Macron? Because the real EU is in Berlin and Paris…the rest are puppets.

  16. avatar
    Bernard

    Lesson 1 – don’t even try leaving
    Lesson 2 – see lesson 1

  17. avatar
    Michael

    People are dumb, dumb people form mobs, and a democracy with a stupid majority will self-destruct.

  18. avatar
    Παυλος

    1) when you make people feel like their concerns isn’t heard at all, people will react
    2) reaction is going to be bad and obviously not well thought, but never the less the outcome of bad political decisions that alienate people from the ruling elite
    3) the bankers that are the real rulers of the continent must learn that for the average folks dignity and national honour is more important than financial agreements or even a contemporary slowdown or hult of economical growth,even in little’s Greece’s example during the period before and after the referendum there were people, even conservatives that When they was asked why to vute against EU they were referring to the biblical quite “αποθανέτω ή ψυχή μου μετά των αλλοφύλων» (Κριτές, 16, 4-30). In loose translation ” I will take them with me in death ” ,mean that for them wasn’t really matter any more if there is hardships ahead as long as they could make a statement,
    A statement that fallen on deaf ears, Now the British people are pushed to the edge and they try also to make a statement, let’s hope that their leaders won’t be blackmailed to betray them so they can be a example of defiance for those in the continent that lost their nerve and guts

  19. avatar
    Martin Cawthorne-Nugent

    Both Julie Smith and Erik Jones make excellent points.

    A key aspect is demographic. Few aged under 40 years voted to leave the EU whilst few over 60 voted to remain. The referendum has proved a very blunt instrument because 3 years later the outcome would be different simply because of the old dying and the young reaching voting age.

    Generalisms are risky but the younger generations tend to have a pride in being European whilst older generations don’t. The greying of Europe doesn’t help this situation.

    The challenge is to make the work and achievements of the EU more visible and accessible to older generations whilst keeping the commitment and enthusiasm of younger generations.

    How to present Europe as a place where you can grow up, mature and grow old whilst living the life you want to live amongst those you want to share it with?

  20. avatar
    jthk

    Different from the Iran Nuclear Deal, when Trump has withdrawn from the Deal, it is Iran and Europe that are going to suffer. Brexit is the British people that have to suffer not EU. When the UK is so deeply integrated with member states of EU in almost every aspect, it is almost hopeless to agree upon a workable and commonly accepted plan exit. It is because the basic mechanism of democracy is party competition. When parties are competing for power and support, they would never agree with each other. Agree has been considered a sign of weakness and surrender. As the Chairman of the European Commission Mr Juncker recently said “Our British friends ought to say what they want”. Even the media claimed they do not know what to report… Apparently, British leaders do not know what they want and what the British people want. They only know that Brexit is a job they have to accomplish after the referendum. For almost 3 years, Brexit has been dragging without hope to end. The British people are confused, the business are confused… economic growth slow down and now is slipping. And at the same time, the world is changing… These are lessons we can learn! As the British people have seen all the messy and confusion spread, they probably know/not know what is going on with the Brexit. All these uncertainties are not good for the British people and the country. A second referendum should be considered quickly. If people still vote in favour of Brexit, they have to agree Brexit with no deal at the same time with specific timing of the exit.

  21. avatar
    Peter

    Beagle 2 on Mars, British-built Beresheet on the Moon, Brexit on Earth – all crashed due to reality ;)

    • avatar
      EU Reform- Proactive

      Hi Peter- I don’t wish to rob you of your funny or myopic pro EU comment.

      But- did you consider belittling a whole fellow nation (not individual politicians) want neither solve a thing nor make the EU greater?

      By looking into “inventions”- take the “wheel” & its later “application”: it shows that the great Chinese were first to invent “the first working wheelbarrow” around 200BCE, later the great Romans were using the arch to build roads & viaducts.

      Now compare where the European tribes were at the same time around 200BCE.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel

      https://www.thoughtco.com/who-invented-the-wheelbarrow-1991685

    • avatar
      Peter

      Honestly, I think ‘crashing’ is a helpful learning process. In Netanjahus words (concerning Beresheet) if at first you don’t succeed you try again.

      Concerning Brexit, the general British electorate now is less desillusioned by false promises (health care spending, stop immigration, blurry ‘taking back control’ whatever that would mean) than 2016. Why not trying to fix the first referendum with a second?

      On the other hand, I simply don’t get why so many British MPs shy away from what they were voted for which is protecting the electorate from any obvious damage. The Brexit referendum was not even binding. Why does Mrs May not have the chuzpa to vipe away something that is not in British interest? In the past I thought she was afraid of her (globalist investment banker) Brexit rebels like Rees-Mogg and the like, but now as she seems to count on Corbyn she could easily say, yes, we want to continue having a say in Brussels. Because that’s British interest. Where is her bulldog spirit?

  22. avatar
    catherine benning

    What lessons can the EU learn from Brexit?

    The betrayal of British people by our government is one of them.

    Feast your eyes and steep your mind in the horror of this show, presented drip by drip, to the eyes of a shafted nation. Ending with the demon refusing to get the hell out of our place of representation.

    https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2018/12/the-top-40-horrors-lurking-in-the-small-print-of-theresa-mays-brexit-deal-2/

    How can this be legal?. Why have our lawyers been so lax? Or, are their seats filled with those who, like Gina Miller, were hidden in the woodwork from the moment they entered this UK landmass?

    Are the remainder of EU citizens as in the dark as we were and are?

  23. avatar
    catherine benning

    What lessons can the EU learn from Brexit?

    This MP was on the Andrew Marr show this morning, discussing his hatred of British voters for using their democratic right to Remain or Leave this club. He is the future of Europe and you are seeing it now. Do you like the sound of it? We British people do not, we voted to Leave the EU because of its lack of democracy as we know it. Here is its ethos envisioned. Be prepared.

    • avatar
      catherine benning

      What lessons can the EU learn from Brexit?

      Here is the Marr show I wrote of above. Somehow it got lost. This Member of Parliament is an outright liar leading his people toward the kind of violence we are now seeing across our country.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMPiLNKM2BA

      And the man he names in his hysterical anti establishment rant is this man. Note how most people who vote to remain are those who have low intelligence and intense dislike of their fellow Brit. Now I wonder why that is?

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DF3OQkWEyZA

  24. avatar
    EU Reform- Proactive

    Hi Catherine & Peter-

    the whole EU-Brexit wrangle (TM “horror show”) – gives insight and shows the limitations and dangers when forming political clubs and POLITICAL negotiations follow when Members become dissatisfied.

    Peter, the “try and try again” has reference to the technical & human pioneering spirit- not a “political” one. To question voters “sanity” after an unexpected referendum outcome- if it is against the “political mainstream” & entrenched EU interests & thinking (other EU examples exist) is disingenuous and smells of political manipulation. The UK “national” bulldog spirit has probably vanished with the one who coined it.

    We all know all UK referendums are advisory only and parliament has the final decision to make. Regardless how many times they will be repeated.

    “To make one”- they didn’t- yet!

    The UK political negotiators are exposed to direct EU influence & pressures and might have changed their tune. The voters face a similar media onslaught. Who really knows?

    Further, to speculate & interrogate what the electorate was really thinking or should have thought is spurious & immaterial- the 52% outcome is! At the same time, the opinion of the 48% is/should equally be tolerated & accepted as correct.

    The link attached by Catherine is worrisome! Why are some of the great UK legal minds not mounting a strong legal challenge? Is there a EU conspiracy against the 52% outcome specifically & the UK sovereignty in general?

    One cannot be distracted by the EU’s ultimate political END GAME- the creation of a unitary EU STATE (USE)- step by step. That should be displayed in huge capital letters inside every of the 28 sovereign parliamentary chambers.

    If it is untrue, Brussels thinkers can easily allay these fears and answer that question and include it in a TREATY ADDENDUM or similar. “The USE BACKSTOP”?!

    I have the least against any form of an Economic European Union- to cooperate, plus a little extra for “some of the select few happiest nations”- to look after & share values in between themselves on a voluntary basis.

    But- nobody should be prevented against their wish to end a relationship gone sour when centralization become overbearing & dominant.

    One doesn’t “count pennies” or discusses “peripherals” to no end- when:

    • the underlying principles of the EU concept are questioned, the real agenda of the Pan Europe Movement= EU are in urgent need to be re-investigated and brought back from the shadows into the limelight of the voting “commoners”.

    • The actual issue is the “loss of sovereignty”- mainly benefiting a minority group of global elitists, the entrenched nobility & aristocrats- however clever they were in the past or deem themselves today.

    Article 50- as an “escape clause” must never become a severe penalty- like the “Treaty of Versailles” was for some. It needs to be re-engineered!

    BREXIT serves and should be used as a “precedent case” and a warning to all other 27 EU Members- should any one want to change their mind one day!

    • avatar
      Peter

      The try and try again spirit is very well valid in a political sense. Imagine, liberalist democracy parents wouldn’t have insisted against the absolute monarchs and other dictators. Politics is always a struggle of ideas.

      If I understand your criticism right, you see the EU as some undemocratic club who steals souvereignty from ‘the people’. But is that really the case? First of all, the EU is undoubtably a club of liberal democracies. As it had a state-like form from the beginning (e.g. Adenauer expressed this less than a year after German capitulation in early 1946), it is viewed justifiably much more critical in the European public than e.g. OSCE or Council of Europe. I would immediately agree with you if you said ‘a fully fledged European nation state needs a more democratic foundation’. Though, this is certainly not a question of today politics. There is nothing like a European nation yet and maybe there never will.
      Perhaps the core question about ‘giving’ the Brits the referendum was the ‘ever closer union’ clause in European treaties. London financial industry feared the Banking Union and bail-out funds. With ever closer union we need more ligitimate representation and millions of British people were lead to the idea that ‘eurocrats’ cannot represent them. I think this is very much misleading and not at all true. European elections are even more representative than UK national elections, the Council of the EU consist of the members of democratically elected governments. There are lot’s of veto rights in order to protect national interests. And even majority decisions are very unlikely made against a populous country like the UK with a strong diplomacy lever.

      The system is improvable, sure, and some policies might be better decided on a regional or national or even on a global level, but that should be part of ongoing debates. If you leave, you cannot take part anymore. Or let’s say it will be much more difficult.

      Coming back to our topic: Many environmental, security, migrational, social, economical, … questions simply won’t be well decided if policies stop at national borders (or shores). This should be much more central in any future membership discussion.

      And a second point: holding referenda needs a decent debating culture including campaign transparancy (who is donating on what purpose).

    • avatar
      EU Reform- Proactive

      Hi Peter,

      I hear you!

      Every person has somewhere a hidden gene which sets off alarm bells when ones universal spirit of freedom, ethics & logic is “undermined” by questionable rhetoric & unproven political concepts.

      It is true that the various forces in politics (& business) are trying to outmaneuver themselves all the time. Add the evil of money, greed, lust for control, power over others & survival of the fittest- makes such kind of “politics” a dangerous but evil “try & try again” competition. Sorry, not my kind of game!

      Also, I prefer to avoid & ignore the commonly used left & right, blue & brown, Nazi fascist, red & black…. etc historical coined references. They are the past, outdated and old wounds are better left to heal completely.

      We should always be cautious, alert & critical- not to allow or repeat our European failures in one or other way to visit us once more. Political disasters are always created by crazy ideologues, fanatics & disseminated by their (celebrated) books- like: Das Kapital, Der Adel, Praktischer Idealismus, Mein Kampf etc..

      I personally remain happily unconvinced, until the EU leadership exposes the FINAL CHAPTER of the EU concept! As easy as that! One STILL has a choice.

      The present crowd of politicians and their lobbyists involved do not inspire my confidence!

      Have a nice day!

  25. avatar
    Peter

    Antagonism of nation and EU which seems to be central to the New Right (and some Old Left) movements around should be demonstrated to be as artificial as it is. A complemental European perspective does not rob anyone of national identity nor souvereignty as there is no such thing as a ‘single level’ souvereign.

  26. avatar
    bert van santen

    Not to demand from other countries to accept unknown migrants.

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