Welcome to our book of the month! Each month, we put forward a book for our Book Club, collecting your questions and comments and taking them to the author for their response. In September, we’re speaking to former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright about her new book Fascism: A Warning.

Madeleine Albright was the first female Secretary of State, serving in the Clinton administration from 1997 to 2001. We asked you to send us in questions for her back in August. The central thesis of her book is that we need to learn the lessons of the past in order to avoid repeating the same mistakes. She traces the development of fascism in Europe in the early 20th century, before discussing its legacy after the Second World War (and continuing up to today).

Fascism: A Warning draws parallels between the dictators of the past and some of the “strongman” leaders in 2018, including Russia’s President Putin and Turkey’s President Erdoğan. She’s not the only person sounding the alarm; in September 2018, Pierre Moscovici, the European Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, warned of the emergence of “little Mussolinis” across Europe. Could fascism ever have a comeback?

What do our readers think? We had a comment from Frankie saying she thinks the experience of fascism in the early 20th century is still vivid enough to prevent it re-emerging again. Is she right? Wasn’t the experience of fascism in the 1930s so bad that nobody in a democratic system would ever want to adopt it again?

Next up, we had a comment from Proactive thinks people are too quick to use the word ‘fascism’ today. He says it seems like ‘fascist’ is just a common insult people use against their political opponents, no matter what they believe. How would Madeleine Albright respond?

Is Donald Trump a fascist? Several reviewers have interpreted Madeleine Albright’s book as a veiled attack on the current state of US politics. Yet we had a comment sent in from Yannick who argues that Donald Trump is not a fascist. He argues that Mr Trump doesn’t hold any ideology at all beyond political self-interest. Is that right?

Finally, we had a comment from Viviana asking what we can do to resist the resurgence of fascism, especially when the tools to spread far-right propaganda online via social media and ‘fake news’ are so readily available?

Could fascism really re-emerge today? Or are the memories of the 1920s and ’30s too strong? Are people too quick to use the word ‘fascist’? And what can we do to resist the spread of fascist propaganda online? Let us know your thoughts and comments in the form below and we’ll take them to policymakers and experts for their reactions!

IMAGE CREDITS: (c) BigStock – tinx


73 comments Post a commentcomment

What do YOU think?

  1. avatar
    Ivan

    The striking similarities between Socialism and fascism makes Fascism the flip side of the coin to Socialism and both should be consigned to the history books, if for no other reason than their combined pile of 200 million dead bodies.

    • avatar
      Anonymous

      Oh, please do enlighten me on these ‘striking similarities’ between Socialism and Fascism, it’ll make for an interesting lecture.

    • avatar
      Roger

      Ivan so were is the millions of dead bodies created by the Scandinavian socialism?

    • avatar
      Gabriella

      Roger I suggest you learn a little history before declare the Scandinavian countries “socialist”. Perhaps you cound study the history of Easter-Central Europe, China, Cuba… and understand what true socialism is.

    • avatar
      Gabriella

      Btw, Cab you tell me a number on the Swedish rape numbers?

    • avatar
      Oscar

      Ivan fascism has a large parts of socialism in its policies. Mussolini was a socialist to begin with. Same with Mr. Salvini.

    • avatar
      Ivan

      Oscar As was one Mr A Hitler, he was the leader of The National Socialist German Workers’ Party after all.

      Socialism is Cancer, Capitalism is the cure 8|

    • avatar
      Mihály

      socialism=/=communism

  2. avatar
    catherine benning

    Could fascism really re-emerge today?

    What is fascism? The real meaning of the word. Do you know?

    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fascism

    Doesn’t this word connect very strongly with what is now termed as ‘political correctness’ by the removal of our freedom of speech, which threatens incarceration should you go against the policies being sold to you twenty four hours a day, without a break to breathe? Governments, via globalist direction and under disguise, have started to refer to a dissenting voice as ‘hate’ speech.

    Then the removal of our human right of Association. Once again, to select ones company is considered, hate of those you do not wish to associate with, as you feel you have nothing in common. Rejection of those one does not identify with, we are told, is hate crime. And strangely enough, it always appears to be geared toward the anglo-saxon tribe. Their culture is the criminal of this newly pushed crime. Only pale skinned people, who are the real minority on the planet, are hateful toward other tribes. Yet, those same pale people have allowed their lands to be invaded without any serious rejection of the interloper to date. Unlike other countries who reject the invasion of their brothers next door by shooting them head on as they cross their border.

    The globalist view of the world is certainly fascist in its politically correct ideology as it discriminates avidly against the indigenous peoples of the West.

    Here is a sample.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiU20QjKPCo

    This is a deliberate move to destroy and diminish European history. Whilst at the same time deny the history of the invader and their political backdrop of outright birth slavery. Exactly the way pale face did in past centuries. We were all surfs of some kind or another. Are we going to pull down the art work, if there is any, of Chiefs behind the owning of tribes from their birth? Nelson Mandela being a Zulu chief family man himself. Along with those who remain as indentured human beings today? Where are the leaders of these action groups who want to thwart continued slavery taking place not so far from Europe today in North Africa?

    https://www.pri.org/stories/2011-01-13/mandelas-village-traditional-leadership-returns

    Or, are we fascists to dare to mention it? Even though the slave trade of the 19th century continues to be a reason our politicians create hate crime right here in our lands of the free today?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=286rjVmXvKc

    It may be a good idea to invade these countries by return mass migration and tackle the slave trade at its core. Rather than attack the civilisation that ‘abolished’ it to give freedom to all. Then perhaps we could release ourselves from the fascist stigma once and for all.

  3. avatar
    John Costigane

    To the Liberal establishment any opposition is seen , and named, as Fascist. This is a defect of the liberal narrative. Populism is on the rise and the liberal elite must respect this perspective since it has a democratic basis.

    Both perspective have equal value and should be seen as competitors in the democratic race for power. Liberalism is no longer all-pervasive and it should recognize this fact.

  4. avatar
    Manlio

    Of course it does. Why is it coming out now and did not emerge 30 or 40 y.a.? Fixed-term contracts, low wages, stopped social elevator, so that people can study whatever they want to, but Will still be poor (and Pay a lo of money for education), bad social welfare. That is why fascism came out almost a century ago and why it is coming out Now. Hyperliberalism produces poverty, poverty produces Fascism.

  5. avatar
    Christina

    Yes easily if we don’t change our politics! People are fed up, they are pushed to their limits they feel insecure… why don’t you fight the reasons instead of fighting the people pointing fingers at them , blaming the people. After all they are tax payers

  6. avatar
    Stefania

    il neoliberismo è il cancro maligno del mondo . Il neoliberismo provoca guerre, povertà, ingiustizie, morte……il fascismo fu la risposta SBAGLIATA al neoliberismo e solo gli stupidi non imparano dagli errori, errori che comunque di fronte ai neoliberisti sono zuccherini. Rimane ad ogni modo il cancro maligno cioè il neoliberismo .Si grida al lupo di fronte al mostro. Bisogna sconfiggerlo il mostro

    Neoliberalism is the evil cancer of the world. Neoliberalism causes wars, poverty, injustice, death…… Fascism was the wrong answer to neoliberalism and only stupid people don’t learn from mistakes, mistakes that anyway in front of neoliberal are sprinkles. In any case, malignant cancer is the same as neoliberalism. Shout out to the wolf in front of the monster. The Monster must be defeated

  7. avatar
    Ioannis

    if you want to stop fascism, you should change policy in economic and emigration. otherwise……

  8. avatar
    Irena

    If you want to stop immigration you should stop causing it! Stop bombing people out of their homes and livelihoods!

    • avatar
      Sylvain

      It’s not only bombing

  9. avatar
    randomguy2018

    Whats with the recycled topics? Ive seen several repeated in a fairly short time.
    Same topic and then cleaned up and new comments.

    Fascism is better than the Socialists and Liberals and Peoples Party, but still
    its not the solution. Anything to take down this godless EUSSR with no values. Europe is divided like never before.

  10. avatar
    ironworker

    Could fascism really re-emerge today?

    At first look, I was tempted to say no, but at a second thought, I might say that it depends. If globalism that we know and everything that comes with it tends to resist to average Joe dissatisfaction of outsourcing jobs and uncontrolled immigration, the more radical and unexpected the reactions. In the end, the fascism could be just one consequence,

  11. avatar
    EU Reform- Proactive

    Former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright made several “Allright” points!
    Most revealing are “il Duce’s” quotes. And he left plenty behind to ponder about! Check them out!

    Striking & alarming parallels can easily be identified in the “processes” and quotes from JCJ. It is rather frightening. Is one too sensitive- too serious? Also- read them!

    https://board.freedomainradio.com/topic/47539-quotes-from-from-eu-dictator-jean-claude-juncker/

    The “pluck a chicken’s feather one at a time- nobody will notice- could have come from EU’s JCJ directly! More of his wisdoms:

    JCJ in 1999:

    “We decide on something, leave it lying around and wait and see what happens. If no one kicks up a fuss, because most people don’t understand what has been decided, we continue step by step until there is no turning back”

    On 21 April 2011 in the EUobserver: ‘I’m for secret, dark debates……!

    Il Duce: “Fascism should more appropriately be called Corporatism because it is a merger of state and corporate power”

    It is long overdue to kick up a hell of fuss before it’s too late!
    The next EU dictator is on his way- “Mr. Guy Verhofstadt”

    https://www.independent.co.uk/topic/guy-verhofstadt

    Dear Madam- good grieve- have you opened a Pandora box by accident?

  12. avatar
    Stadex

    How would we know fascism?
    At what point does Hitler become a fascist, he was democratically elected, was he a fascist then?
    Or is it when he wrote mein Kampf, or the attack against Poland?
    At the same time the USA fought the Nazis black people were being discriminated in the south, was the USA fascist in the south?
    Was colonialism fascist?
    If Hitler had his exact same views but he never made any wars and never killed people would he still be a fascist?

    • avatar
      Stadex

      To answer my own questions, fascism starts as an ideology, after that it’s action. But it is very difficult to identify new fascism, the old Hitler Nazi fascism we can identify easily but the new fascism is able to pretend to be normal activity. Also the left calls every critical person a nazi, this tactic is very dangerous because when it is used so broadly to describe any critical person it weakens the word and peoples willingness to listen when later a real nazi aka fascist shows up. We might already have fascists in power, I have analyzed the US invasion of Iraq, the Regime Change policies in Venezuela, and so many other destabilizing things going back decades and I ask myself if you replace the word USA with Russia would we say ”Oh well the Russians must have had a good reason for doing that coup”, I doubt it. This is not to be pro or anti USA, I actually like US culture very much.
      Maybe the USA is a empire and empires have big feet and trample anybody that gets in their way, could be seen as fascism but not necessarily.
      For the Syrian who sees US proxies killing civilians it makes no difference whether those proxies were sent by a empire or a fascist.

    • avatar
      EU Reform- Proactive

      Stadex, a positive during deliberations is that careful- not emotional & dumb- “pondering” (thinking) guides some people (back) to the road of self enlightenment and improves one’s critical (logical & factual) thinking.

      More people should ask themselves:

      * why does DE only ask questions- never gives answers?
      * after leaving a “dumb” comment- some realize it was unhelpful- too late, regret it & realize that with a bit more “pondering” they could have come up with a more intelligent one.

      But- some fail always, others fail some times! We all may fail on occasions!

  13. avatar
    Ivano

    vedere una statua un “uomo” in quella posizione mi dà un senso di inquietudine…mi sembra un uomo che vuole “mostrare” i muscoli…sic
    Seeing a statue of a ” man ” in that position gives me a sense of anxiety… seems like a man who wants to ” show ” muscles… sic

  14. avatar
    David

    Hungary! The dreadful Salvini in Italy. The Boris/Telegraph alliance in England. Fascism is alive and well!!

    • avatar
      Marin

      David after the communist, radical leftist dictatorships, what did you expect?

    • avatar
      David

      Marin Berlusconi,Cameron/May ? What are you talking about!!
      Leftists? Arch right wing I think!!

    • avatar
      Resistance is not futile

      No way Boris is a fascist. Orban is against illegel migration and pro Christianity but I have not seen him argue that people should be killed, Salvini makes statements that are loud and strong against illegal migration and it’s negatives. I don’t know of any statements where they call for people to be killed.
      Illegal migration brings the good the bad and the ugly and the terrorist, we need legal and controlled migration to bring the good, those who want to work and who will improve our countries.

  15. avatar
    Lora

    It’s already re-emerging, not that it ever really left.

  16. avatar
    Attila

    Yes, it is a real tragedy, that the neo marxists from the western europe are on the same way with the fascists.

  17. avatar
    Lengyel

    Viktor 0rban is the PM of hungary. 0rban and his party is fascist!

    • avatar
      Miklos

      Lengyel ….. Viktor !Te.takonypoc miről beszélsz te szarjanko !Azt sem tudod hogy mi az az élet !Eltel volna nagy szociba ,majd akkor tudnád értékelni a mostani életet !🙈🙈

      Lengyel….. Viktor! You. What are you talking about? You don’t even know what life is! It would have been a great association, and then you could appreciate the current life.

    • avatar
      Marin

      Nah, he is not facsist. He is an opportunist. A Jobbik government would really be better, but if we are talking about foreign policy only, Orban did a good job with that. Anything besides that? The Jobbik would be better in both inland matters, and foreign policy.

    • avatar
      EU Reform- Proactive

      Lengyel, sorry to say but yours is a typical “sweeping” and emotional statement. Well within the free speech category- but cries for refinement!

  18. avatar
    Lis

    Disgraziatamente il fascismo nn é mai morto…nn solo…é come i VAMPIRI….DORME DI GIORNO…E SI SVEGLIA CUANDO GLI CONVIENE……..
    Unfortunately fascism is never dead… only… it’s like VAMPIRES…. SLEEPS BY DAY… AND WAKES UP WHEN CONVENIENT……..

  19. avatar
    Dirk

    Fascism is reality in European politics already. Italy, Austria, Hungary have fascist (pre fascist) government. All of them installed and financed by Russia. They are not trying to reform politics. They trying to establish a completely different political system.

    • avatar
      Job

      Man you are spinning

    • avatar
      Antonio

      Better to be the UE little b*tch like western countries right?

    • avatar
      Michele

      Salvini is only trying to defend Italy , nothing else . It’ s not fascism.

    • avatar
      Marin

      You really don’t no the definition of fascism. Where are the secret police? The censorship, and deletion of the media? Where is the complete, unquestionably rulership, and autocracy? Countries that try to defend themselves, and their people are not fascist. They are the only form of correct government. If anything, the most undemocratic systems in Europe are the European Union, and Russia. How can you even believe that a country like Italy is fascist, while it’s government is illegally held back from a democratic takeover, by an EU representative? It’s simply, objectively foolish.

    • avatar
      Marin

      Every country must defend her political and economic interests : it’ s only good ol’ common sense . And nobody in Italy cares about Russia : there is no Russian troll in the Italian government . I hope that all the European countries will take back their full soveregnty from the EU burocracy.

  20. avatar
    Job

    Fascism….we are building statues of Marx and Lenin….ofc it will come back

  21. avatar
    Luca

    First let’s stop radicals leftists they are already here then let’s stop the ghosts of the past

    • avatar
      Vincenzo

      Who are the radical leftists tho.

    • avatar
      Luca

      NGO, politicians like Merkel and Macron, businessmen like Soros working towards a society ruled by the only true driver of money and control. I cant see the difference with fascists and nazists : both preach the betterment of species and organicistic states. They have different level of scientific knowledge but their ends are the same.

    • avatar
      Virgo

      Luca la Merkel di sinistra? Ma dove vivi..
      Luca Merkel on the left? You’re out of your mind..

    • avatar
      Dina

      Quindi se non si e ‘ di sinistra si e’ fascisti ?
      So if you’re not left, you’re fascists?

    • avatar
      Luca

      Virgo ah già perche’ il PD infatti è di sinistra , mi sa che al di là dei nomi forse bisogna guardare alla sostanza delle cose. Sapere che le politiche messe in atto oggi sono eredità dei movimenti radicali del passato. Altrimenti si finisce per credere pure che i sostenitori dei diritti dei popoli inclusi i loro membri più deboli siano dei pericolosi xenofobi e razzisti
      Virgo ah already because the pd indeed is on the left, I guess beyond names maybe you have to look at the substance of things. Knowing that the policies implemented today are legacy of the radical movements of the past. Otherwise we end up believing that supporters of the rights of peoples including their weakest members are dangerous xenophobic and racist

  22. avatar
    Patrizia

    Ma fateci il piacere..!
    But give us pleasure..!

  23. avatar
    Marisa

    Is Communism any better? History written by the winners has to be revisited

  24. avatar
    Giorgio

    IT STILL JUST EXIST.
    SALVINI IS A FASCIST!
    MOSTLY ITALIANS ARE FASCISTS !!!

  25. avatar
    Michele

    Salvini is not a fascist. He is just trying to defend Italy.

    • avatar
      jthk

      Under such logic, Putin and Erdoğan are trying to defend their own country too! Where does the threat Russia and Turkey come from? Why Putin and Erdoğan need to fight a war in Syria? The comment enemy is apparently the US. How does Madeleine Albright understand the emergence of strongman? Strongman would not arise without external threat.

  26. avatar
    Michele

    It’ s the madness of the leftist radicals that will bring back fascism as a reaction.

  27. avatar
    Jeroen

    Any country in which lobbying is accepted is allready hinting towards fascism. Perhaps not on the racial superiority thing, but that is not necessarily part of fascism anyway.

  28. avatar
    Filipe

    No need. No enemy of the ruling classes in europe.

  29. avatar
    Nuno

    You really want to go this way??!!…

  30. avatar
    Franz M

    Not to 100% but in a similar ways. In Hungary you see hints of what European fascism in the 21st century could look like.

  31. avatar
    jthk

    Strongman politics is not the only cause of fascism. According to Wikipedia, fascism is a “far-right politics within the traditional left–right”, against in the Wikipedia, we can easily find elaboration: “politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in … which are more traditionally associated with the left, such as anti-globalisation, nationalization and protectionism. Isn’t this fit very very much better the very characteristics of the American President Trump rather than Russia’s President Putin and Turkey’s President Erdoğan?

  32. avatar
    Fabres

    Dear Mrs. Albright, may I gently remind you that you once said that the death of half million Iraqi children was worth it. Please stop preaching values which you and the decision making circles in Washington never apply!!!

  33. avatar
    jthk

    Some reviewers considered that :Madeleine Albright’s book as a veiled attack on the current state of US politics. As the US is such a democratic country and waging war all over the world on grounds of democracy and freedom, what should an ex-Secretary of State of the America cannot write clearly? So, Madeleine Albright might not necessarily accused her own fascist president but those national leaders who have overwhelming popular support in other countries. As an ex-Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright ought to voice openly her own president become criticising others.

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