putinThese days, identity is important. In a chaotic, uncertain world, belonging to a group can bring a sense of security and stability. Old identities – nationalities and ideologies – are undergoing a resurgence, defying predictions that they would somehow be less relevant in a globalised future.

However, group members don’t just identify themselves based on what they are. It’s also important, when discussing identity, to contrast yourself with what you are not. Every “In-group” needs an “Out-group”.

On 13 October 2016, Friends of Europe held their annual ‘State of Europe‘ high-level roundtable, bringing together senior policymakers, civil society representatives, and business leaders to discuss the future direction of the continent. One of the topics during the discussions was how to rescue Europe from its sense of doom and gloom, and how to regain the trust and confidence of European citizens.

A provocative contribution was made by the former Polish Foreign Minister, Radosław Sikorski, who argued that Europe needed “bad guys” to help foster a stronger sense of European identity. He cited the example of the EU naval mission to counter piracy off the coast of Somalia, which has effectively brought to an end the (once all too common) hijackings around the Gulf of Aden.

sikorski2We need to find good enemies. And they exist. They threaten our way of life, they kill Europeans, they smuggle people, they kill others. And we have tackled them successfully before… What better way of showing results than defeating bad enemies?

Other participants, however, warned that this approach was dangerous. Some thought it played into the xenophobic instincts of populists. Rather than focusing on real (or perceived) common enemies such as Somali pirates or the so-called Islamic State, should the EU instead promote common values and cooperation?

Does Europe need a common enemy? Or should European identity be founded on cooperation in the face of common challenges, such as climate change? Let us know your thoughts and comments in the form below, and we’ll take them to policymakers and experts for their reactions!

IMAGE CREDITS: CC / Flickr – Michaela


241 comments Post a commentComment

What do YOU think?

  1. Christos Mouzeviris

    It shouldn’t but sadly yes, that’s what they want us to believe… “Enemies” and “threats” can unite, manipulate, coerce to submission and conventional behavior or beliefs, if a population is made believe that there is one. It worked in the Cold War, in America and all the West.. When the Communists where defeated then we were “threatened” by Islam and Islamists… Now it’s Russia back again, or maybe later China.. Can we realize that sometimes the worse enemy comes from within? I mean we spend billions of money to install missiles against such threats, making a few arms companies very very rich, while we deprive our children of education, health and prosperity or a future full of opportunities…

    • Epicuros

      I Agree, unfortunally History is repeating.
      I believe that Russia is the “classical enemy” for England and Germany for the last 200 years at least.Don’t forget that Foreign intelligences financed those “Swiss couch philosophers” to “inject communism” in Russia back in 1917.That was a post war1 victory of Germany Against Russia.???But for me personally I believe that Russia should be a future member of E.U(with or without Britain).It’s a country with Good sources, material and mental.

  2. Thomas Beavitt

    The political classes of Europe are busy trying to construct an external “common enemy” in the form of Russia in order to deflect the people of Europe from criticism of their many and abject failures. They did a similar thing in 1914.

    • Duncan

      No, they didn’t. In 1914 they threw the entire world into war over the assassination of a single person. Europe has never been more divided than it was then. I think you refer to nazi Germany being united by hitler’s propaganda in the lead up to 1939?

  3. Shahadat Bablu Hossain

    Europeans are Europeans, they don’t need any enemy, better to have storing cooperations each other’s and build a strong Europe,
    The Americans are not your real friend, they will not come to Europe to help you with out their own interest to enjoy your tax payers money!!!
    Read a book name ein Gesamtes stratigie fuer Deutschland or Europa, author late Mr. Helmut Schmidt ex bundes Kaunzeller

  4. Katrin Mpakirtzi

    Rusia is europe too…
    German and Rusia kill 100000000 people in 2nd war and some muslims ”ally” not eyropeans but asians ir moggol races are very very happy for that. Stop killing eatcother… and stop put out our religion of our behaviour and consiense because some leftists Trotskists lives in a dreaming world …

    • Adrian Limbidis

      Return Crimea and get out of Ukraine.
      Until then Russia is our enemy!

    • Miguel Cabrita

      As I write bellow, Europe needs new leaders to solve the problems today leaders created and are not willing to solve, Europe does not need enemies.

    • Merkurio

      Merkel has many allies that “think” even more radically than her. We hear them online and in the european parliament and commission, not to mention the eurogroup. Two crisis and two failures to show any solidarity with southern nations. They will manage to end the EU but since it became the 4th Reich I don’t mind.

  5. Giulia Noia Dipresa

    what’s the point of this question? you mean if Europe needs a common enemy to blame for everything that’s happening?

  6. Duncan

    The simple fact is yes, we are a social species. When faced with a challenge from outside source it is unifying. Personal differences are temporarily put aside in order to combat the external threat. In times of no adversity we are driven to reaffirm or reshape the pack structure. It’s basic behavioural psychology. But, and here’s where our higher brain functions come in useful, we have plenty of unifying common enemies that don’t involve pushing us towards a fight against other groups, the fight against cancer, the fight against poverty, the fight against climate change, the fight against nuclear weaponry, the fight against homelessness, the fight against starvation, the fight against discrimination crimes, the fight against social injustice, the fight against unemployment. This list is practically endless. Europe should only be interested in choosing to view another group of humans as a common enemy when they have proven themselves to be an enemy. War mongering and provoking bad feeling towards another group of people just to distract the masses away from the inadequacy of their own leaders to actually do what they are supposed to (I.e. To lead the way in combating the real problems the society has) is immoral, unethical, costly, tantamount to no better than the rhetoric of extremist recruiters and frankly most importantly of all, WILL NOT SOLVE THE REAL PROBLEMS.

  7. Lawrence Baron

    The common enemy for Europe are the neo liberals and their mob the xenophobes and racists.

    • Merkurio

      That have been rulling it since they invaded in 2005. Most woke up to that fact too late.

    • daanvu

      No we call it vladimr poetin muslims (most of them) are no tread

  8. Yanni Sfyrides

    In not matured societies religion and a common enemy is needed in order to ΄΄coil” -unite them – a nice policy for corrupted governors to keep control.Greek poet Kavafis said ”….and what are we going to do now without barbarians?” But in todays EU common society and common logic it is rather a common friend in Northern borders that is more needed.

    • Jefke

      Idiot greece is europe wtf are you talking about you pay also with the euro

  9. Nando Aidos

    Unfortunately everyone invents an enemy to gather the troops and keep them together. This is a pre-history condition we should all strive to eliminate.
    There are enemies, yes, but “common enemies” are inventions that only benefit the warmongers.

  10. nando

    Unfortunately everyone invents an enemy to gather the troops and keep them together. This is a pre-history condition we should all strive to eliminate.
    There are enemies, yes, but “common enemies” are inventions that only benefit the warmongers.

  11. Franck Néo Legon

    Islamism is a common enemy, USA which promotes it in order to destabilize the non-dominion countries is a common enemy, taxescape masters is a common enemy, multinational corps playing with social dumping is a common enemy. No need to create a false one.

    • daanvu

      Hahahaha you wacht to much poetins propganda. Russia isnt the stongest contry. if europe moblises even the amricans wil pis ther pans. And that you gay hating asshols even dare to cal your self a democratie. Is Insane and russia is our enemy first return the crime and leaf ukrain alone than we wil talk. And if you dont? Than your grand,grand children wil stil tel te story how we burnt down Moscow and platent our falg in het ruines! So look past that gay hating goverment of yours and see hows the real enemy. And if you dont you wil find your self dead in the somewere trying to defend your “strogest nation”

  12. Maria Crismariuc

    LASATI URA NU LUAM CU NOI DECAT 4 SCANDURI ‘MOR COPII NEVINOVATI ‘DISTRUGE PLANETA ‘E BINE SA FIM MAI BUNI ‘

  13. Enric Mestres Girbal

    The EU is the lackey of USA and capitalism and is bad for us to follow their policies. Treat Russia as a neighbour and a friend and not as an enemy.

    • daanvu

      Okay and wil you than give the crime back and dont try to annex our friends your fucking warmogers arent friends of europe. Your are our enemy and that isnt europe falt but yours

  14. Joao Antonio Camoes

    Wrong question! This is not a question of “need”! Europe and it’s social, cultural, political, (even religious) values are not acceptable to some groups, countries or ideologies. So, we as europeans, must stand together defending our ancestral and common ties no matter each european nationality.

  15. Antonios Forlidas

    Our enemy is not Putin. Our enemy is some personalities like the demented Boris Johnson, neoliberals, NATO and the aggressive hawks of the american Pentagon who are jeopardizing the safety of Europe, by deploying missiles in eastern Europe. Our enemies , are all those who are supporting ISIS , who destabilized the region by destroying countries like Iraq, Libya, Syria, creating death, destruction , misery terrorism and uncontrollable refugees influx. Europe is paying its mistakes.

    • daanvu

      Haha You wil talk divrent if our troops are marching in to Moscow

    • Epicuros

      I agree .

  16. Miguel Cabrita

    Of course not, that is a classic move of propaganda, finding a common enemy against whom the people can be gathered around, solidifying the power of those in charge.

    In that sense it is not Europe which needs a common enemy, but European weak and feeble minded leaders are the ones who do really need it in order to manipulate the people.

    In another way Europe does need brand new leaders, not the ones the kind of those we have today.

  17. Ana Fonseca

    If we want to stupidify europeans yes we can invest on that. If we want to preserve our common heritage of democracy and moral development it will be the wrong direction. Stupid question…

  18. Miguel Cabrita

    Of course not, that is a classic move of propaganda, finding a common enemy against whom the people can be gathered around, solidifying the power of those in charge.

    In that sense it is not Europe which needs a common enemy, but European weak and feeble minded leaders are the ones who do really need it in order to manipulate the people.

    In another way Europe does need brand new leaders, not the ones the kind of those we have today.

  19. Igor Mohorić

    Europeans already have common enemy!

    Bank/corporation cartel that rob us with blessing of European Comission and instaled gouverments of european countries.

    Not to mention imigrants- troyan horse, backdoor attack on EU population by asimilation of nations. Allso produced by our traitor gouverments.

  20. Joao Antonio Camoes

    Any special reason to put V Putin near a devil? Didn’t you learned History? How many times Russia has been invaded without success and amounting huge loss of lifes? 2 at least. How many times Russia has helped to liberate Europe? Once with huge russian massive loss of human lifes. Treat Russia the way it deserves: respectful, correctness, as a neighbor , but monitoring closely. This the way EU should stand, no matter external pressure.

    • Duncan

      Erm, Russia’s never once “liberated” Europe. If you refer to ww2, then I refer you to the years that followed it, or just ask eastern Poland about what Russia did while they were still cooperating with Nazi Germany. I’m in now way defending anybody else’s actions here, but I absolutely condemn Putins actions in regards to the Ukraine, Syria and his seeming eagerness for nuclear war. Anybody who claims he’s a nice guy really I will say is just a downright fool or a downright coward. Playing Russian thermonuclear roulette with the world in order to further his own political agenda. Sending troops into foreign territory without invitation by the government, UN sanction, or even the ability to claim it was to protect lives from an oppressive and/or murderous regime. And either supporting a regime that does, or being involved in the bombing of civilian targets, hospitals and aid convoys. Russia is not forced to be the enemy of Europe, but Putin is the enemy of peace on earth, and a bully to boot. I will never understand how anyone can try to defend his actions.

  21. Pavlina Proteou

    I though Europe had learned after the devastating lesson of two wars. Judging from your title …apparently not!

    • daanvu

      No those times are over and now were are united. And our libertys are treatend by those russian basterds. War is unavoidable and now europe wil realy ficht the war to end al wars.

  22. Matej Mlinarič

    Seriously you want to start nuclear war with Russia because of this…. What is wrong with you there will be no winners, if we cause extinction with radiation that is released from nuclear bombs. Beside only real reason that Russia is a target is because they support Iran for their geopolitical interests. That is all to it. Reason why they do that is because Russian economy depends on exports of oil and gas into EU. Just what Russia really needs in to diversify their industries for exports so it won’t depend that much on global fluctuations for oil and gas prices. Its exactly same reason why USA and NATO support Saudi Arabia by allowing sale of arms. So how about start with that issue and come to understanding on how we can all together to face a common threat that wants destruction for us all. While allowing nuclear capabilities in Iran is exactly what would start with nuclear conflict. Cause Iran would really like to get rid of Israel and especially USA. After islamism is dealt with globally we can have a discussion on how to govern our countries. Cause ultimately only thing that really matters is what kind of world do we leave for generation to come. In that i can’t really imagine worse legacy then leaving radioactive death zones that would be deadly for thousands of years.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6njHg4TGBfc

    When it should be clear to everybody that islamists are trying to wipe out non-muslims from islamic countries. After that they will spread their violence to neighboring countries. So in this fight that will determine whether freedoms and actual diversity survives for generations to come instead of islamic tyranny that bully their own people into submission under constant threat of death. You can’t pick and choose which part of planet that those might be allowed while others would be dealt with. So more that we all waste our resources fighting each other. Bolder and deadlier our real enemies will become. Only way to really win this war against islamism, if all countries that are threatened with it deal with anybody that dares to protect them.

    http://markhumphrys.com/islamist.war.html

  23. Davide Vecchi

    It is a big chance to distract the european citizens from real social-economical problems such as unemployed young people in Southern Europe, migration/integration, etcc….

  24. Ainhoa Lizar

    Russia is Europe! If Russia is presented as the enemy than Europeans are being fooled and driven to their own destruction… European can´t afford to fight against each other or will face extinction.

    • Miguel Cabrita

      No one seems to notice it. Unfortunately the word “Europe” became a synonym of UE or at least some Central / Eastern Europe disputes definition of it.

  25. Jaime Martins

    Séc. XXI com procedimentos do séc. XX. Não houve evolução quanto ao modo de viver para os Dirigentes. :(

  26. John McKenna

    Most of our enemies sit in Brussels and in our nations capitals; Juncker, Merkel, Hollande et al, these are the ones with the worst intentions and the power to carry them out. I do not fear Russia and those in power that I mentioned have empowered the Islamists.

  27. Nat

    Kindergarden bullies need a common enemy to scapegoat. It’s sad that people don´t seem to grow up.

  28. Dina Clark

    Yes,it has a common enemy, her self!…..take a good look Europe, and wake up!…..

  29. Stergios Kaprinis

    Apparently Greece can no longer be Europe’s boogeyman. Even the most retarded of Bild’s readers cannot put the blame on Greece any more for the mess of Deutsche Bank or Italy’s bank run, or France’s fiscal problems, or Brexit…

    • Alex

      As long as Europe is a club for the rich ones where some can kickout the rest, it will always be the North vs the South and Greece shall easily be the scapegoat to blame everything on.

  30. Jose Estalinho

    We are the real Enemy. If we ware not só feable, Rússia And the US And the radical muslins eould tremble And run for thire lifes. But we choose to be weak.

    • Duncan

      There’s a big difference between being tolerant and being weak. One is being strong enough to put up with more crap before it overloads your level of tolerance and forces you to push back, the other is cowing down to someone/something you disagree with but feel you cannot stand against them/it. Speaking as a tolerant person I find it sad when I need to show others the difference between tolerant and weak, because it means that others are willing to exploit their fellow humans, and that makes me sad for my species.

    • Duncan

      Is this opinion driven by fear, cowardice or tolerance?
      Nobody should be treated as an enemy until they show themselves to be an enemy. That’s the cornerstone of peaceful cooperation. But to single Putin out as someone not to be treated as an enemy seems wrong, he’s been making himself, and through him his country more hostile to the west for years, everytime he gets away with bullying the west into going along with what he wants he starts doing it again over something else. Before Putin took over Russia was on track to becoming a NATO state, this would have in effect removed any fear of a world nuclear war, since China would not drop nuclear weapons on their overseas businesses. We came so close to being able to completely eradicate the threat thermonuclear weapons represent to the world. And now look where we are. You think of Putin as a friend do you? I’d say he’s nobody’s friend, no matter where they live.

  31. Erika Belair

    Ignorance and hate are the enemy.From people inside of europe and outside…all I read in these comments no matter to which post is only hate and ignorance.It is rare to read any positive and constructive critic ….or even suggestions of what to improve and how to do it.

  32. Silvio Bosco

    Russia is not an enemy but Putin should be brought in front of an international criminal court….in an ideal world

  33. Rachid ELAÏDI

    “…l’UE devrait plutôt promouvoir les valeurs communes et la coopération?
    Est -ce que l’ Europe a besoin d’ un ennemi commun?…”je me contente de cette non compréhension des valeurs de l’Europe par des européens eux-même;un contre-sens. Je m’explique ,Voltaire disait “Mon Dieu, gardez-moi de mes amis. Quant à mes ennemis, je m’en charge !” est-ce que l’Europe a besoin d’ennemis? à l’évidence non,mais les actes de Bruxelles aussi du parlement européen laissent à penser que l’Europe dévie tous les jours de ses valeurs universelles basées sur les valeurs de la révolution française de 1789. par exemple ,la France qui ne veut pas octroyer la nationalité française à tous les anciens combattants de l’armée française des anciennes colonies françaises qui ont fait les guerres de France ,de jadis et ,pourtant la France naturalise tous les ans 20 plus et dont la plupart ne comprenne ni la langue française ni la culture française et dont la plupart sont des chomeurs ;donc à la France comme à tous les pays qui constituent l’union européenne de faire un effort dans ce sens ;il serait mieux que le parlement européen vote dans ce sens ,de telle sorte ,l’Europe retrouverait ses valeurs et de ne pas se comporter comme Orban qui a donné l’armée hongroise de tirer ,à balle réelle, sur les immigrés. Maintenant ,s’il faut commencer à choisir et faire le distinguo entre celui-là est un ennemi et l’autre est un ami ,il faut savoir cette politique à engendrer un ennemi potentiel et qui a frappé Paris,Nice…qui s’appelle DAESH ,Al Nosra, et compagnie .Par ailleurs la xénophobie qui a engendré le système de visa est aussi un ennemi potentiel. Donc seul remède est pas de visa ,moins de loi et plus un comportement citoyen digne des valeurs et donc retrouver vous-même,vos valeurs européennes et d’autres…

  34. Zisis Poimenidis

    This stupid photo promotes stupid innuendos. If Europe want to forge a strong and common european identity, then Europe should invest on politics based on great ideals, and common welfare. Politics that would unite the mosaic of European nationalities to a common goal (and not against a “common enemy”). Politics that european people would be proud of being a part of them. If by the way, it is imperative to have a common enemy, then look no further. This enemy is domestic. Its the bureaucracy and the bureaucrats that rule Europe, on behalf of Germany.

  35. Vinko Rajic

    NO and most of all we don’t need enemy in Russia simple because it is stupid . Russians are NOT out enemies . Do you know what Russians want in the EU : NOTHING , they don’t care . To make Russia to our enemy is really very silly .

    • Duncan

      What do Russian’s want in Syria then? I differentiate between Russia as a whole, and it’s current leader since he, like many EU leaders does not have the interests of his average subject at heart in his decision making process.

  36. Joao Antonio Camoes

    To find or invent an external enemy does not work nowadays. Millenials are instructed, they are free to think, they do not accept false/past solutions, they know how to obtain information, they exercice de contradictory. “Times they are a changing “(again)

    • Duncan

      Your statement suggests something that figures do not support. Suggesting you have not sought to obtain information yourself. Which when combined with the figures already show just proves people are no different now than they have been for the past 100,000 years. People will believe a lie if it is attractive to them, always.

  37. Mircea Lazăr Alexandru

    Our common enemy is Islam. A horror movie drawn ideology that brain washed milions and killed thousands of inocent people and for what ? For who they were. That’s inhumane
    Islam is a violation to human rights and should be abolished as soon as possible before even more people die because of it

    • Duncan

      And so on and so forth. Plenty of anti Islamic sentiment to go around. Not too difficult to see how people from the west are so hated by Islamic nations with such rhetoric going around. Hate begets hate. Why is it I’m even surprised by it still? An entire planet of people willing to hate instead of talk. We are more able than ever to talk to people from different backgrounds and yet we still seem hell bent on criticising and badmouthing and provoking. Islam isn’t out to get you, much like the Jews were not out to get Germany in 1936 and the Christians didn’t burn Rome when Nero was emperor. People with an agenda (usually simply the desire for control and power) are the ones out to get you. Some may well claim it to be in the name of God, others use another scapegoat for if things go badly, but it is always people. People are twisting the words of a religion to get them to commit acts of violence. Just like people are lying about why your country isn’t doing well and people are lying about why the EU is failing and people are lying about a great many things. It’s simply so they can get away with doing things you wouldn’t agree with, or better yet, get you to do those things for them. And for what purpose? It’s not for God, and it’s not for the good of the species. It’s for selfish reasons. Because people are our own worst enemy.

  38. Panagiotopoulos George

    only fools believe that russia is enemy…global gangs are the enemy, and not one else..all people want peace, and if people arise all these psychos ruling this world, dont stand a chance…last thing we need is a warrrr psychos, and no one should serve a false purpose orchestrated by the masters of deception, cruelty and greed in their battles…lets have hilary, may, oland, and merkel go to war with putin in an arena, and let them eat their hearts out..not in the back of our children, of this generation, of this race…let them destroy therselves

  39. Gmn Sofia Chrt

    Cpmmon enemy we already have its called the EU Commission, Parlament – How about a common freind

  40. Kyle Reese

    Well, let’s just remember what is the origin of the current common enemy. Putin didn’t create isis, did he? so, who did?

  41. João de Oliveira

    Already have … its the Europe itself … at least it’s what looks like… EU institutions are fighting Europe … in favour of ? That’s the question …

  42. Елена Николова

    Защо не си погледнете сатаниските църкви на ОБАМИТЕ и еврогейската вавилонска мръсница ????АНТИХРИСТИ СКАПАНИ

  43. EU reform- proactive

    Is that a DE/EU lessons in Atheism? In Christianity, Satan rivals God, whereas in Islam, Satan cannot rival God, only mankind.

    Is that how “Friends of Europe + DE” concluded their annual ‘State of Europe‘ high-level round-table? Apparently that pic originated from a protest at the Hanover trade fair in 2013. But never mind- the DE is using it.

    Insinuating & comparing the EU to G(o)od & Russia to all Evil? Great diplomacy & very helpful!

    A confirmation of the obedient relationship between long term serfs and the so g(o)odly US & EU? Who is who in our global zoo? An unbelievable & tasteless metaphor- bordering on incitement?

  44. Nick Coulson

    All dictatorships need enemies. It’s the only way to make people turn on Democrats, woops there I go again, forgetting the EU line, I meant populists.

  45. Inge Hoy

    –we don´t NEED any “outside” enemies- we have enough “INSIDE” !

  46. Timo

    Need an enemy?
    No!
    Who does?!

    Does Europe has enemies? Yes! And they’re being underestimated and pandered to; authoritarianism, nationalism, xenophobia, racism, …
    Europe’s enemy is the craving for easy solutions to complex challenges, the call for the “strongman” who doles out money and erases all complications in life promising a “no worry world” in exchange for votes and a bit of freedom here, a bit there and some more for this and that…

  47. Ivan Rachev

    we got 99 problems,but the putin aint one!!stop to tolerate and start expatriate,the bloody russians did not create refugees,radical islam,toleration,,same sex weddings,gay parents.Where is the the church?Are we still christians in Europe?

  48. M

    Europe need to act as one! That also means common enemies but we don’t have to create enemies but when we find out a threatening to face it up united!

  49. klassen

    No !!
    But unfortunately we the people in europe have one and it resides in the eu parliament.!!

  50. Stefano Ciarrocchi

    It is someting that i’m asking myself… can people decide to stand togheter without a common enemy? I hope yes but i don’t know.

  51. Julia Hadjikyriacou

    The EU should unite on values of peace, ethics and the abolishment of poverty for all. Enemies are needed only for those profiteering.

  52. Stefania Portici

    la UE è nata con l’intenzione di evitare guerre ? Questo ci è stato detto e pure un Nobel per la pace ha preso ! Sarebbe ora che decidessimo davvero cosa vogliamo senza essere portati con l’inganno dove NON vogliamo . Leggete qui su quali fondamenti si basa la UE e la direzione odierna mi sembra questa predetta dai padri fondatori : “Per quanto non si possa dire pubblicamente, il fatto è che l’Europa per nascere ha bisogno di una forte tensione russo-americana, e non della distensione, così come per consolidarsi essa avrà bisogno di una guerra contro l’Unione Sovietica, da saper fare al momento buono” [in A. Spinelli, Diario Europeo (1948-1969), il Mulino, 1989, p. 175]..”

    The EU started with the intention of avoiding wars. This we were told and even a Nobel Peace Prize has taken! It’s about time that you really decide what we want without being tricked where NOT want. Read here about what fundamentals underpinning the EU and today the direction seems to be this predicted by the founding fathers: “As you can not say it publicly, the fact is that Europe needs to be born of a strong US-Russian tension, and no detente, as well as to consolidate it will need a war against the Soviet Union, of knowing how to do at the right moment “[in A. Spinelli, European Journal (1948-1969), the Mill, 1989, p. 175] .. “

    • Tarquin Farquhar

      @Dean Plassaras
      PLUS its poodle – France!

  53. eusebio manuel vestias pecurto vestias

    There is an option for European developed countries to each other for profissional students

    • Tarquin Farquhar

      @Joao Carlos Alves Henriques Branco
      Too many names, too little sense!

  54. André Fernandes

    Tal a ONU como a UE, foram criadas em contextos muito únicos e específicos, ambas instituições foram criadas com o propósito de resolver conflitos. Tal como Doyle salienta nos seus argumentos, o liberalismo não ignora o peso da anarquia no sistema internacional. Os conhecidos “peace-loving” (Doyle, 1986: 206) também são “war-making” (Doyle, 1986: 213), eles admitem que haverá sempre Estados que não respeitam as normas internacionais, que não se pode prever os comportamentos destes e que também os Estados liberais necessitam um inimigo em comum para se darem bem juntos. O que Kant propõe parte do pressuposto de que a democracia, esta união é para o nosso bem, e que precisa de lutar contra um inimigo que representa o mal. É um conflito entre o bem e o mal. Cynthia Weber dá-nos o exemplo do filme Independence Day, que a humanidade se uniu para lutar contra extraterrestres (Weber, 2005: 37). A meu entender, as instituições internacionais funcionam melhor num contexto de crise internacional mas não num contexto de crise nacional. Portanto para que haja entendimentos entre os Estados nestas instituições liberais necessitam juntar-se contra um inimigo comum. O terrorismo de hoje é um exemplo de inimigo comum cuja democracia corre grande risco.
    Esta visão tem um grande perigo, devido à Guerra Fria, houve um consenso generalizado entre Estados europeus de admitirem Estados-Unidos como “empire by invitation” (Geir, 1991: 143) que seria o modelo a onde se quer chegar. Isto causa problemas porque estaríamos a adotar uma visão vanguardista segundo Buzan, uma visão eurocêntrica (Buzan, 2010: 2). Os ataques dos não liberais são visto como ataques terroristas, mas o bombardeamento de Hiroshima e Nagasaki e o que se faz na prisão de Guantánamo pelo país modelo é defendido por uma causa justa. Portanto a visão liberal também justifica a guerra como algo de moral a evitar mas que pode ser necessária (Pureza, 1994-95: 86). Parece estarmos adotar uma visão “um por todos e todos por um” (Dumas, 1995: 11).

    Doyle, W. Michael “Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs”, Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Summer, 1983), pp. 205-235.
    Weber, Cynthia (2005) International Relations Theory. United-States, New-York: Routledge.
    Geir Lundstad, ‘Empire by Invitation? The United States and Western Europe, 1945–1952,’ in Charles Maier (ed.), The Cold War in Europe: Era of a Divided Continent (New York: Wiener, 1991), pp. 143–68.
    Buzan, Barry (2010) “Culture and international society”, International Affairs, 86; 1 : 1-26.
    Pureza, José Manuel (1994-95) “Da Guerra Justa à Guerra Justificada ?” Politica Internacional Vol.1, n°10.

  55. Matej Zaggy Zagorc

    Europe has a common enemy, Europe. However, we’re being led to believe that Putin is the the threat while Europe slowly tears itself up from the inside

  56. Marianne Smeding

    EU and USA are doing their utmost best to make us to believe Russia is the enemy but it is not working. The people start to see who are the real war- and fear-mongers in the world.

    • Bobi Dochev

      Very well said! Western propaganda doesn’t work any more we start believe on our own eyes, not what our corrupted politicians said!!!

  57. Steven Lea Phillips

    No, Europe needs a peaceful identity that becomes part whole a peaceful way of transitioning with then Eurasia, as in becoming a peaceful perception, within then aiding worldwide continuity, and then share within the common identity to trade global peace as a Eurasian worldwide planetary partnership, for peace on Earth, is prosperity.

  58. Julia Hadjikyriacou

    Radosław Sikorski needs to grow up. Peace and cooperation is the way forward and a view that we are one human family who live on one earth. We need to care about all people and protect our planet’s environment. Our common enemy can be banning practices that harm people and the planet.

  59. Bobi Dochev

    It’s damn simple. When EU had good partnership with Russia we had peaceful living and prosperity for both size, for European and for Russian citizen.
    Then US sow threat in this relationships, more over many countries started asking then why we need NATO and voila – NATO and US made us enemies to prove their existence. And we (our corrupted leaders) are stupid enough to play that game!

  60. Tony Muñiz

    Every socialist government and dictatorship does. Why would the EU corrupt politicians be any different? Although Europes biggest enemy is at the helm and sit in Brussels. Along with Merkel.

  61. Goran Batovanja

    Russia is greatest and most important European country. Making Russia enemy of the rest European countries makes USA leader. That is what USA wants. Real united Europe, from Gibraltar to Vladivostok would be real leader in world. That is what USA does not want and that is why they fabricate Putin as enemy.

  62. Peter

    No, Europe needs a stable and open neighbourhood. Effords to stopp murdering in Ukraine, Syria or South Sudan must increase immediately. Since Kosovo conflict, war returned as politics with other means. This attitude must be punished at international criminal court! But who would sue British premiers, French, Russian and US presidents or German chancellors? UN was formed to prevent attack wars, it must be strengthened.

  63. Matej Zaggy Zagorc

    Why is Putin on the picture though? If anything, Europe should be looking for a partnership and diplomacy with Russia, not trying to make them a “common enemy” so our glorious leaders would have less trouble controlling the masses. Remember last time people in Europe had a common enemy?

    • António Espadaneira

      “Glorious leaders” – that kind of thoughts is the common enemy of europe

    • Stanley Jr Obinna Ibe

      I am afraid the answer to question is yes….. I dunno if this is a social issue or simply how human beings behave in “nature” :(

  64. Alfredo Coelho

    Europe has a common enemy, it’s called islam, and we need putin to figth them, cause european leaders are such a pussy.

    • Miguel Hilário

      They are asking if Europe needs a common enemy in order to be united and motivated to thrive.

    • Giulia Noia Dipresa

      I know but I find it a quite strange question ._. Miguel Hilário

    • Bobi Dochev

      The common enemy justifies all the stupidities our “great leaders” do… it is always helpful to have someone to blame.

    • Roger Bylèhn

      The only thing that has ever been able to unite people with many differences historically is gaving a common enemy.

      Talking about unity in diversity sounds good and rigth but it fails to make people feel kinship with other members of the community (no matter if we are talking about EU, nation or city’s.)

      Going by the “us and them” works with our natural pack mentality and therfore helps many to sett aside our many differences and petty argument because: “atlest they aren’t as bad as those over there”

      Feels better now? :)

    • Ivan Burrows

      Miguel Hilário

      ‘Europe’ has a common enemy, its called the EU.

  65. Paweł Kunio

    Wrong question. It is irrelevant whether euros need enemy. The right question is whether europe has enemies and if so how to defend from them.

  66. Maria Rodrigues

    Europe lost the “war”. That’s all. We don’t need enemies. We need to be together in order to be strong. German hegemony is not unifying Europe at all. Neither european politics are helping.

  67. Gioacchino Giorgio Nastasi

    Yes but the real enemy that is not Putin but Islamic States,and Wahabby Islamic propaganda ;we need combat Islamic hatred against our way of life..

  68. George Ferentinos

    The enemy of europe is not russia or whatever else!!!the real enemy lf europe is the eu as it is today!!!!!eu has to be changed dramatically! To be More democratic, more accountable to the ordinary people and more idealistic than just subsidies and stupid regulations

    • Barna Toth

      the real enemy is Greek depts :)

    • Maria Georgiou

      The real enemy are the ignorants that don’t understand how Greek debt was created and manipulated by financial warfare the same way as Cyprus banks were robbed.

    • Barna Toth

      Tamas Kadar they are the guys who claim that only they know what democracy is so they refuse to work during siesta time

    • Barna Toth

      Susan X Hare those who think russia is not a threat to Europe are dumb or simply naive.

    • Maya Becker

      Barna Toth sorry to burst your ignorant bubble but Greeks are the hardest working people in Europe!

    • Bobi Dochev

      I would say religion in common :)

  69. Bobi Dochev

    Basally EU doesn’t NATO does!
    But even for Europe it is easier if you have someone else to blame…

  70. Andrew Potts

    LoL nobody needs an enemy but Europe certainly has one and it’s not Russia which is endlessly promoted by the establishment.
    Of course most people realise this and are changing their voting patterns.

  71. Gian Marco

    Our common enemy is american imperialism and its linkages with saudis, milestone of last 25 years of wars

  72. Nando Aidos

    NO! Europe does not need common enemies. The politicians are the ones who grasped this idea and keep using it to achieve their own selfish power grabbing goals.

  73. Christina Kler

    The enemy is from inside not outside !!! Some politics TRY very hard lately to creat a Cold War type enemy to make populations feel insecure … well it won’t work this time ! All these blue collars can go to hell and let the world live in peace ! Merry Christmas to some of us the rest are in war Created by our governments unfortunately 😠

  74. Hugo Miguel

    O único problema são os grupos poderosos que utilizam os media para fazerem lavagens cerebrais às populações europeias.
    Expliquem-me, se há tanto controlo sobre a Internet porque é que os Estados não bloqueiam a propaganda de redes terroristas que recrutam as pessoas?
    Interesses instalados e o desejo de manterem o caos para deu próprio benefício

  75. Jaime Martins

    E quem são os verdadeiros amigos ou inimigos?
    And who are the real friends or enemies?

  76. Andy Sanders

    we don’t need an enemy but the current Russian political philosophy makes us the enemy. Just read what Alexander Dugin has published. Russia needs an external enemy to keep the country from falling apart under internal divisions. The Western part has all the wealth and the Eastern part is rapidly depopulating. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksandr_Dugin

    • Adam Bxcz

      True it also holds america as superpower. But its just the way things are

    • Tijs Cruysen

      Start with NATO, which Putin already proposed in 2010

  77. Chris Pavlides

    We have each other… since ages. North, south, east, west. The current mess proves that.

  78. Louis Jeffs

    I’ve nothing against Russia. Its government seems to leave a lot to be desired in the democracy department, but then so does mine. I do wonder how much Putin is bent on destabilizing European and Western unity. The way he’s spoken about could give Blofeld or Skeletor a run for their money.

  79. Joao Antonio Camoes

    Wrong question! Does Europe needs an enemy? Europe doesn’t need enemies. Europe should lead for peace with every country; however shouldn’t be naive and must be strong enough and tough to whom does not respect Europe’s history, legacy, heritage and common culture.

  80. Helena Corte-Real

    Who? USA? EU? NATO? Or all of them? Don´t give us a “stupidity graduation”…! We´re not buying it anymore…

  81. Faddi Zsolt

    The cionistic imperialist want us to believe that islam is evil and they want that we say: God damn it! Take the army and kill them all. They stay behind 9/11, ISIS and the European terror attacks.

  82. Manuel Alegria

    not Europe…
    the governments do…The common enemy is the best way to keep people on the leach…

  83. Manuel Da Bernarda

    When Daesh shields behind innocent people in Siria,they count with European “Good bourgeois feelings”.Only that doesn’t work with Putin!!!

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